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春节习俗(中英双语)


来源:百试乐微信公众号 发布时间:2018-02-24 20:36:00 查看次数:

内容提要:小年到十五的春节习俗(now & then)(中英双语)

小年到十五的春节习俗
 
过年吃什么?
喜庆的中国年怎么能少得了这个主题?年节里的美味大多是和家人好友一同分享的,过年必吃美食包括年糕长面条还有饺子
Food is a big part of Chinese New Year celebrations, and many meals are eaten with family and friends. Some traditional dishes for the holidays are nian gao cake, long noodles, and dumplings.
 
过年要大扫除吗?
不等年来到,家家户户都打扫得干干净净。除夕前,各式清扫工具也都妥妥收起来,因为不少人认为新年扫除会把好运也扫走的。
Homes are cleaned top to bottom before the beginning of the new year, and all cleaning equipment is put away before New Year's Eve because it's believed that good fortune may be swept away if cleaning is done on New Year's Day.
 
过年跟谁玩?
中国的新年和春节放假讲求的是家人团聚,共庆佳节。家人好友欢聚一堂,共享美味。人们还会祭拜已故的亲人,孩子们则忙着收礼物,帮着节前打扫,盼着过正月十五元宵节
The Chinese New Year's Eve and New Year's Day holidays are very family-centered celebrations. Many dinners are held with family and friends, deceased relatives are honoured, and children receive gifts and participate in traditions like cleaning ahead of the celebration and the Lantern Festival.
 
过年咋布置?
过年了各家的果盘里少不了橙子桔子(拜年的人也会送),糖碟里会盛着八类果脯,还会用绿植鲜花来增添节日喜气,新年祝福也要用红纸书写。
Before New Year's Day, homes are decorated with trays of oranges and tangerineswhich are also brought by visitors during the holiday, a candy tray with eight kinds of dried sweet fruits, and live plants and vases of fresh flowers. Wishes for the new year are written on red paper.
 
过年穿什么?
红色是过年的主打色,它象征着光明和幸福的未来。不仅大家喜欢过节穿红色,亲朋好友,特别是小孩子和单身汪还会收到长辈的红包以求好运。
Red is a key colour for New Year's celebrations, as it symbolizes a bright and happy future. People wear red clothing during the festivities, explains Colour Lovers, and children, unmarried friends, and close relatives are given little red envelopes with money inside for good luck.
 
过年为啥放鞭炮?
关于过年还有个传说,中国的新年跟打怪有关。其实是神话中的一种怪兽,会在新年的第一天来吃小孩子、牲口和粮食。为了保护大家不受伤害,村民们将食物放在门口供享用。因为惧怕红色和炮竹,过年大家便会挂红灯笼放鞭炮
Legend holds that the Chinese New Year began with a battle against a mythical beast called the Nian, who would come on the first day of the new year to eat children, livestock, and crops. In order to protect themselves from the Nian, villages put food in front of their doors believing that the creature would eat that and leave everything else alone. It was believed that the Nian was afraid of the colour red and firecrackers, so people would hang red lanterns outside and set off firecrackers.
 
从小年到正月十五都有啥讲究?  in the past
 
Spring Festival, which falls on the 1st day of the 1st lunar month, is the most important festival in China. It's a time for family reunion, like Christmas in the West.
农历正月初一开始,就到了中国最重要的节日——春节。人们阖家团圆,就如同西方的圣诞节一样。
Traditionally, Spring Festival starts in the early days of the 12th month of the lunar calendar and lasts until the middle of the 1st lunar month of the following year. With the modernization of China, some traditional customs are still followed today, but others have fallen by the wayside.
传统意义上的春节始于农历腊月(即十二月)初,一直持续到来年的正月(即一月)中旬。随着中国的现代化,一些传统习俗被保留了下来,而另一些却逐渐消失在我们的视野中。
Chinese will celebrate the Lunar New Year on Feb. 16 this year, which is also the Year of the Dog according to the Chinese zodiac. As we are preparing for the most important festival, let's have a review of the traditional customs that celebrate the Spring Festival.
今年中国的农历新年是公历二月十六日,轮到了中国十二生肖里面的狗年。在我们忙着准备这个重大节日的同时,不妨来回顾一下春节有哪些传统习俗吧。
腊月二十三:送灶上天
Little New Year, which falls the 23rd day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar, is also known as the Festival of the Kitchen God, the deity who oversees the moral character of each household.
农历腊月二十三日是小年,也是祭灶节。灶神在中国神话传说中监管一家善恶。
People make sacrifices to the Kitchen Gold on this day. A paper image is burnt dispatching the god's spirit to Heaven to report on the family's conduct over the past year. The Kitchen God is then welcomed back by pasting a new paper image of him beside the stove.
人们在小年这一天祭拜灶神,焚烧灶神的画像,意味着送灶神上天,禀报这家人在过去一年的德行。接着人们会在灶旁贴上新的画像,意味着再把灶神接回来。
腊月二十四:扫舍去尘
Families undertake thorough house cleaning on the 24th day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar, sweeping out the old in preparation for the coming year.
农历腊月二十四日,各家各户会进行大扫除扫舍去尘,预示着除旧迎新。
According to tradition, ghosts and deities must choose either to return to Heaven or to stay on Earth during the last month of the year. It is believed that to ensure the ghosts and deities' timely departure, people must thoroughly clean both their bodies and their dwellings, down to every last drawer and cupboard.
根据传统,各路鬼神在农历腊月必须决定自己是返回天庭还是继续留在人间。据说为了确保鬼神及时启程离开,人们必须彻底地沐浴干净、清理住处,哪怕是抽屉柜子也不能疏忽。
腊月二十五:推磨做豆腐
People turn the mill and make tofu on the 25th day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar, as legend says the Jade Emperor will descend and taste the soybean curd residue to experience an austere life.
农历腊月二十五日,人们推磨做豆腐,因为传说玉帝会在这一日降临人间,品尝豆腐渣,体味人间疾苦。
According to Taoist mythology, the Jade Emperor is the Taoist ruler of Heaven and all realms of existence below, including that of Man and Hell. He is one of the most important gods of the Chinese traditional religious pantheon.
道家神话里,玉帝是道家统治者,管理着天界及以下各界,包括人间和地狱。玉帝是中国传统宗教诸神中最重要的神祗之一。
腊月二十六:杀猪割年肉
The folk saying goes: "butcher a pig and get some meat to prepare for the New Year feast" on the 26th day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar.
中国有一句俗语:杀猪割年肉。农历腊月二十六正是杀猪割年肉的日子。
In the old days, many people could not afford meat and they saved the best for the New Year feast. People's livelihoods have improved greatly and meat is now a very common dish in daily diet, but the Chinese still prefer having meat during festival season.
旧时许多人买不起肉,所以就把一年中最好的东西留到新年团圆饭吃。如今人们的生活质量得到了极大的改善,一日三餐里肉食已经再常见不过,但春节期间人们仍然钟爱肉食。
腊月二十七:宰鸡赶集
People kill chickens and go to market to buy provisions for the Spring Festival on the 27th day of the 12th month in the Lunar Calendar. With the approach of the Lunar New Year, Chinese people prepare ingredients and food they need for the New Year feast. Chicken is an indispensible dish.
腊月二十七是人们动手杀鸡、上市场打年货的日子。农历新年即将到来,中国人开始准备新年团圆饭所需的食材,而鸡肉是必不可少的一道菜。
腊月二十八:题写桃符
After people have cleaned the house and started preparing food, they begin decorating their homes creating an atmosphere of rejoicing and festivity on the 28th day of the 12th month in the Lunar Calendar. Decorations include spring couplets, New Year pictures, posters of door gods and paper-cuts.
扫舍除尘、采购食材之后,人们开始于腊月二十八日装饰房舍,营造喜气洋洋的节日氛围。各色装饰品包括春联、年画、门神贴画和剪纸。
腊月二十九:上供请祖
On the 29th day of the 12th lunar month people visit the graves of their ancestors to honor their memory. It is said Spring Festival originated in the Shang Dynasty c. 1600 BC-c. 1100 BC from the people's sacrifice to gods and ancestors at the end of an old year and the start of a new one.
腊月二十九,人们动身扫墓,拜祭祖先。据说春节始于商朝(公元前1600年至公元前1100年),那时人们在辞旧迎新之际祭祀神灵和祖先。
大年三十:除夕守岁
Chinese people are supposed to stay up the whole night on the 30th day of the 12th month in the Lunar Calendar
腊月三十,人们熬夜守岁。
In Chinese mythology, a monster called nian would come out to harm people on New Year's Eve, so people get together, staying up and chatting, hoping for a peaceful passage of time. The custom of staying up Chinese: shou tai sui symbolizes the warding off of all diseases and disasters and wishing good luck in the New Year.
中国神话里,一头叫的妖怪会在新年的前一夜跑出来伤害人类,因此人们聚在一起,守岁聊天,祈祷能平安度过这一晚。因此,中国人将新年前夕熬夜的习俗称为守太岁,意味着远离疾病灾祸,祈祷新年好运。
Chinese people attach great importance to the Spring Festival Eve, when all family members eat dinner together.
中国人十分重视除夕(即新年前一夜),彼时阖家团圆,共享团圆年夜饭。
大年初一:金鸡报晓
The first day of Chinese New Year, also known as the "day of chicken", officially begins at midnight.
午夜零点时分,人们正式跨入新年第一天,也叫金鸡报晓
It is traditional to light firecrackers and make as much of a din as possible to chase off the evil monster nian.
传统习俗是,人们会燃放鞭炮,尽可能制造大的喧闹声赶走邪恶的妖怪
Most importantly the oldest and most senior members are visited with the visits strengthening family kinship.
最重要的习俗是,人们会拜访家中最年长的长辈,以加强家人之间的亲情。
Senior members of the family hand out red envelopes containing cash Chinese: ya sui qian, a form of blessing and to suppress aging and the challenges of the coming year, to junior members of the family, mostly children and teenagers.
而家中的长辈会给晚辈(主要是儿童和青少年)红包(中国人称之压岁钱),代表着对晚辈的祝福,也是祈祷自己在来年身体康健、万事如意。
大年初二:金吠报春
On the second day, married daughters usually go back to their own family to visit parents, relatives and close friends. Traditionally, married daughters didn't have the opportunity to visit their birth families frequently.
初二,出嫁的女儿会回娘家给父母、亲人和密友拜年。旧时,女儿出嫁后拜访娘家父母的机会并不多。
Some believe the second day is also the birthday of all dogs and remember them with special treats.
还有一些人认为初二是所有犬类的生日,因此要给它们好吃的以示庆祝。
大年初三:肥猪拱门
On the third day, an old saying goes: "A fat pig at the door", meaning the arrival of good luck and happiness.
初三,有一句俗语肥猪拱门,预示着好运和幸福的到来。
Traditionally, the third day is known as "Chigou's Day". Chigou literally means "red dog", an epithet of "the God of Blazing Wrath", and it is considered an unlucky day to have guests or go visiting.
初三还有一个传统俗称是赤狗日。赤狗的意思是红色的狗,是熛怒之神的绰号,因此人们认为这一天不宜接客或出访。
Folklore says the 3rd day is also "rat marriage day" Chinese: lao shu qu qin, so people often go to bed earlier to give rats time for their wedding.
民间还传说初三是老鼠娶亲日,所以人们晚上会早早上床歇息,腾出时间给老鼠们成亲。
大年初四:三羊开泰
The old saying "three rams bring bliss" is connected with the fourth day, which says that by making a good beginning a happy end comes.
初四则和俗语三羊开泰有关,意思是岁首吉利就预示着岁末幸福。
According to folklore, it is also the day to welcome back the Kitchen God. On this day, the Kitchen God would check the household and therefore people should not leave home.
民间还传说这一日是迎回灶神的日子。这一天灶神会清点每家的人数,所以切忌外出离家。
大年初五:艮牛耕春
The fifth day is also called the "day of cow". According to Chinese folklore, the first seven days of the 1st lunar month are respectively called "day of chicken", "day of dog", "day of pig", "day of sheep", "day of cow", "day of horse" and "day of man". When creating all living beings on earth, Nu Wa, a goddess in Chinese mythology, created the six creatures before human beings.
初五也被称为牛日。民间传说正月头七天分别是鸡日犬日猪日羊日牛日马日人日。中国传统神话中的女神女娲在创造凡间生物时就是遵循了这个顺序,在创造人类之前先创造了这六种生物。
The fifth day is also the God of Fortune's birthday and people will celebrate this day with a large banquet. This day is also commonly known as the Festival of Po Wu, literally breaking five. According to custom, it is believed that many New Year taboos can be broken on this day.
初五还是财神的生日,人们会举办盛宴以示庆祝。这天也被称为破五日,字面意思是打破数字五。根据习俗,许多新年禁忌过此日皆可破。
大年初六:马到成功
On the sixth day, people make wishes for "ma dao cheng gong", win success immediately upon arrival.
初六,人们祈祷马到成功,意思是成功马上就会到来。
According to tradition, families usually send away the Ghost of Poverty on this day. To send away him, Chinese people will usually throw away their ragged clothes, rubbish and other dirty things.
各家各户在初六有送穷鬼的传统。人们会扔掉破烂的衣服、垃圾和其他脏东西,预示送走穷鬼。
By doing this Chinese people wish to send away poverty and welcome the beautiful days and good luck in the New Year.
这个习俗寓意赶走贫穷,新的一年迎来好日子和好运气。
大年初七:人寿年丰
The seventh day is commonly referred as the "day of man", and in most parts of China people will eat noodles as they symbolize longevity in Chinese culture.
初七是人日,中国各地人民都会吃面条,因为面条在中国文化里寓意长寿。
大年初八:放生祈福
The eighth day is believed to be the birthday of millet, an important crop in ancient China.
初八被认为是中国古代一种重要粮食——谷的生日。
According to folk proverbs, if this day is bright and clear the year will be a harvest year; however, if this day is cloudy or even rainy, the year will suffer from poor harvest.
根据民间俗语,这一天如果晴朗明亮就预示着大丰收,而如果多云甚至下雨就预示着今年会歉收。
Meanwhile, people also set free captive animals on this day, with a blessing for all living beings to flourish in the New Year.
此外,这一天人们还会放生动物,祝福新的一年里所有生物都繁荣兴旺,生生不息。
大年初九:玉皇天诞
The ninth day is called Ti Kong Dan, or the birthday of the Jade Emperor. There will be grand ceremonies in Taoist temples on this day, and ordinary families also offer sacrifices to the Jade Emperor.
初九被称为天公诞,即玉帝的生日。这一天,道家寺庙会举办华丽隆重的庆典,寻常人家也会祭祀玉帝。
大年初十:祭石感恩
The 10th day is believed to be the birthday of the God of Stone which played a very important role in the agricultural society of ancient China.
初十被认为是石头神的生日,在古代中国的农业社会占有非常重要的地位。
On this day, people are forbidden to move any stone, including stone rollers, stone mills and herb grinders, and should not cut into a mountain for rock or build a house with rocks, otherwise bad things will happen to the crops.
这一天切忌移动石头,包括石碾、石磨、研磨器具等等,也不能开山采石或用岩石建房子,否则这年庄稼就会遭殃。
People also burn incense and candles for the stones and offer pancake to the God of Stone.
人们还会焚香、点蜡烛以供奉石头,向石头神上贡烤饼。
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