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“厌学症”的极端表现 'I Hate School' Extreme Edition

来源:网络 发布时间:2012-01-05 14:38:00 查看次数:


What child hasn't dreaded September, the end of summer and the return to school. But for some kids, the prospect of school produces a level of fear so intense that it is immobilizing, resulting in what's known as school-refusal behavior.   Getty Images
These are the kids who may be absent for weeks or months. Some may cry or scream for hours every morning in an effort to resist leaving home. Others may hide out in the nurse's office. Some kids who miss school are simply truant -- they'd just rather be doing something else. But in about two-thirds of cases, a psychiatric problem, most commonly an anxiety disorder, is the cause, according to research led by Christopher A. Kearney, professor and director of clinical training at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 这些孩子可能会缺课数周甚至数月。有些孩子为了赖在家里不上学,会在早上大哭大闹好几个小时,有些孩子到了学校之后会躲到校医室去,还有些小孩干脆就逃学了──他们宁愿去做一些别的事情也不愿意上学。拉斯维加斯内华达大学(University of Nevada)临床教学主任卡尼教授(Christopher A. Kearney)领导实施的一项研究显示,大约有三分之二的“拒学”是精神问题导致的,其中最为普遍的便是焦虑症。
Anywhere from 5% to 28% of children will exhibit some degree of school-refusal behavior at some point, including truancy, according to Dr. Kearney, a leading authority on the behavior, and other experts. For kids with anxiety-fueled school refusal, the fear is real and can take time to overcome. Families may struggle for months to help a child get back into the classroom. Ignoring the problem, or failing to deal with it completely, can lead to more-serious problems later on. 卡尼教授是拒学症研究领域的权威,根据他同其他专家的研究,不管在任何地方,都有5%到28%的儿童会在某些时候表现出某种程度的拒学症症状,包括逃学。对那些因为焦虑而拒绝上学的儿童,对上学的恐惧是真切存在的,是需要时间来克服的。家人也许需要好几个月的努力才能帮助孩子重返课堂。如果对这个问题放任不管,或者这个问题没有得到完全的解决,今后都可能会导致更为严重的问题。
School-refusal behavior isn't just a U.S. phenomenon: Researchers from France to Finland have studied it, and it has garnered particular attention in Japan, a country known for academically rigorous schooling. 拒学症不是美国特有的现象:法国、芬兰的研究者也研究过这个症状,在以严谨学术教育著称的日本,拒学症也得到了特别的关注。
The problem affects the whole family. 'If your kid doesn't go to school, it is hard for you to keep your job,' says Helen Egger, assistant professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. Kids are at heightened risk when starting a new school, and especially when entering middle school. 'It is the perfect storm with the onset of puberty, a huge transition and a much wilder academic environment,' says Dr. Kearney. 这个问题会对全家人产生影响。北卡罗莱纳州达勒姆市杜克大学医学中心(Duke University Medical Center)精神病学及行为科学系助理教授艾格(Helen Egger)表示,如果你的孩子没有上学,你也很难继续工作。在去新学校上学的时候,尤其是刚进入中学的时候,孩子患拒学症的几率会更高。卡尼博士表示,青春期逆反心理、现状的巨大转变以及更需要自律的学习环境,这几个因素共同作用,便催生出了这么一场完美风暴。
Well-meaning parents can make things worse, psychologists say, by allowing an anxious child to miss school, attending school with them as, for example, a classroom volunteer -- or home-schooling. Such accommodations send the message that school is too scary for the child to handle alone and the fear is justified. 'Overprotective parents rush in way too quickly to shield them from any experience that creates distress,' says Karen Cassiday, a clinical psychologist and the owner of the Anxiety and Agoraphobia Treatment Center in Chicago, Ill. 心理学家表示,有些家长可能会好心办坏事,他们允许心情焦虑的孩子不去学校,或者以类似课堂志愿者的身份陪孩子去学校,或者干脆在家里教学。这样的安排会传递这样一个信息:学校太恐怖了,孩子无法独立去面对,他们的恐惧是名正言顺的。伊力诺依州芝加哥市焦虑和陌生环境恐惧症治疗中心(Anxiety and Agoraphobia Treatment Center)的创办人、临床心理学家卡西迪(Karen Cassiday)表示,对孩子过度呵护的家长总是过快地做出干涉,将孩子同任何会导致焦虑的体验隔绝开来。
Untreated, a child with school-refusal behavior is likely to fall behind academically, which can then lead to more anxiety. And there may be longer-term consequences. A 1997 study, published in Comprehensive Psychiatry, followed 35 7- to 12-year-olds treated for school refusal. Twenty to 29 years later, they were found to have had more psychiatric treatment and to have lived with their parents more often than a comparison group. Dave Whamond拒学症儿童如果不接受治疗,很可能在学业上就会落后于同龄人,其焦虑就会进一步加剧。此外拒学症还可能会有一些长期的后果。《综合精神病学》(Comprehensive Psychiatry)杂志上发表了一项研究报告,研究者从1997年开始跟踪调查了35名7至12岁接受拒学症治疗的儿童,在其后的20至29年间,发现跟对照组相比,这些人接受过更多的心理治疗,跟父母同住的时间也更长。
Some kids with unresolved anxiety may go on to self-medicate with alcohol and drugs. A 2004 study in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology followed 9- to 13-year-olds who were treated for an anxiety disorder. Seven years after treatment, those who still had the disorder drank alcohol more days per month and were more likely to use marijuana than those whose disorder had resolved. 有些儿童期焦虑未能得到消解的人,可能在今后会借助酒精或毒品来进行自我治疗。《咨询和临床心理学》(Consulting and Clinical Psychology)杂志刊登了一项始自2004年的研究的报告。该研究的跟踪对象是接受焦虑症治疗的9至13岁儿童。七年过后,跟那些焦虑已经得到消解的研究对象相比,那些依然焦虑的人每个月喝酒的天数更多,也更有可能会吸食大麻。
School refusal 'takes the child off their developmental course,' says Anne Marie Albano, associate professor of clinical psychology and psychiatry at Columbia University, New York. 'They are not going to grow in an age-appropriate way.' 拒学症儿童可能会有分离焦虑症(对跟父母分离感觉很恐惧)或者社交恐惧症(过度恐惧被人品头论足、课堂上被提问、被他人取笑)。随之可能就会出现一些特定的恐惧症──害怕坐巴士、害怕从狗旁边走过、害怕在暴风雨时外出。还有些孩子会变得极度消沉,有些人甚至没法起床。
Kids with school-refusal behavior may have separation anxiety, a fear of being away from their parents, or a social phobia, an inordinate fear of being judged, being called-on in class or being teased. A specific phobia -- fear of riding the bus, walking past a dog or being out in a storm -- may be present. Other children are depressed, in some cases unable to get out of bed. 很多孩子会以头疼、肚子疼或其他身体问题为由拒绝上学,所以有时候很难判断真正的原因是焦虑呢还是身体不适。有一个判断标准是:如果身体不适到了周末就神奇消失,那么真正的原因就是焦虑。
Because many kids complain of headaches, stomachaches or other physical symptoms, it can be difficult to tell whether anxiety, or a physical illness, is to blame. One indicator: Anxiety-fueled ailments tend to disappear magically on weekends.
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