Solving problems Scientifically
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发布时间:2009年04月02日
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LESSoN TEN (B)
     TEXT  B
  
  Solving problems Scientifically
   
      There are scientific ways in which man solves problems. once his curiosity has been aroused, he uses certain methods and procedures to obtain new knowledge and greater understanding. Although the methods are not always the same, there are usually certain elements in the procedures that are similar.
   

Recognizing the problem


      problems must first of all be recognized. The right answers can be obtained only if the right questions are asked. A thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. problems arise in a variety of ways. Sometimes they grow out of a chance(无意,偶然) observation. They may result from reading, from laboratory experiments, or simply from thinking. They also may result from new developments or from new or different human needs.  Today, for example, problems are arising from new discoveries in the fields of nuclear physics, biological engineering, and microelectronics. The development of industry has also brought about (导致,引起)large numbers of problems which have to be solved.
   

Collecting Information


      Next, the scientist tries to learn as much as possible about it.  often this means going to the library and studying books which contain accounts of mans experience and knowledge of the problem. This is called searching the literature.
   
      The scientist may find that others have already solved all or a part of the problem. occasionally he finds answers to closely related questions, which give clues for solving the new one. In his search the scientist accumulates much background information. With these new ideas and facts he builds a firm foundation for solving the problem.
   
  organizing the Information
      After the scientist has finished this part of his work he will probably take the many facts which he has collected and organize them into some kind of system. This may be a logical classification or it may be a mathematical analysis. Usually the analysis will show unanswered questions. Sometimes it will suggest areas that are in need of further study. perhaps one of the most important results of such an analysis is that it indicates certain truths, which generally are called inferences.
   

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