常见阅读理解题解题技巧
  来源:高中英语教学交流
发布时间:2012年05月15日
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内容提要:推理判断题属于主观题,是层次较高的设题。它包括判断和推理题。这两类题常常相互依存,推理是为了得出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。

推理判断题属于主观题,是层次较高的设题。它包括判断和推理题。这两类题常常相互依存,推理是为了得出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。推理题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理题所涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可是某几句话,但做题的指导思想都是以文字信息为依据,既不能做出在原文中找不到文字根据的推理,也不能根据表面文字信息做多步推理。所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息一步推出的答案:即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写(paraphrase)或综合。

常见的题干有:

1 It can be inferred from the text that.

2 We can conclude that.

3 When the writer talks about..., what he really means is that.

4 Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

判断题考查学生在理解文章的基础上,对不同观点进行评价和判断的能力。推理题考查学生由文章的字面信息推出未知信息或隐含信息的能力。

1 判断有据, 推论有理, 忠实原文。切忌用自己的观点代替作者的本意。

2 全面分析所有相关信息,切忌片面思考,得出片面结论。

3 善于揣摩作者思路,尽可能与作者的思路吻合。

4)不可直接选取文中的原句。

1                     Annealing

Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. If metal is heated and then cooled very quickly, for example by dipping (浸) it in water, it will be very hard but also very brittle-that is, it will break easily. Metal that has been annealed is soft but does not break as easily. It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as it is wished, by annealing it. The metal is heated, and allowed to cool slowly for a certain length of time. The longer the heated metal takes to cool slowly, the softer it becomes. Annealing can also be used on other material, such as glass.1990NMET

Why do people put hot metal in water?

A. To make it hard.  B. To make it soft. C. To make it cool.  D. To make it brittle.

[分析]答案为A,此题属推断归纳题。文中第二句说如果把金属加热,然后迅速放到水里冷却,也就会变得非常硬,但也变得脆。hard 是工艺的主观目的。brittle是伴随的客观结果,故选A而不选DB项明显错

误;C项是手段不是目的,因此,都可排除。

In annealing, the required hardness of metal depends on __.

A. the quantity of water used     B. the temperature of the metal

C. the softness of the metal      D. the timing of the operation

[分析]答案为D,此题属概括归纳题。timing 是时间的选择。本答案的依据是56两句,"The metal is heated,length of time.","The longerthe softer it becomes."cool 的时间是可以控制的,时间越长越 soft,即硬度就越低。由此我们可得出结论:在退火过程中,金属的硬度是受到冷却的时间长短影响的。

As suggested by the text, how can glass be made less brittle?

A. It can be heated and then cooled quickly.

B. It can be cooled and then heated slowly.

C. It can be heated and then cooled slowly.

D. It can be cooled and then heated quickly.

[分析]答案为C此题属推理判断题。文中提到"metal"。最后一句说退火工艺同样可用于象玻璃一类的其他材料。文中我们已知"annealing"就是先"heat""cool slowly"。由此推断C是正确的。

2At one time, computers were expected largely to remove the need for paper copies of documents (文件) because they could be stored electronically. But for all the texts that are written, stored and sent electronically, a lot of them are still ending up on paper.

It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime. "I feel in my bones this revolution is causing more trees to be cut down," says Ted Smith of the Earth Village Organization.

Perhaps the best sign of how computer and Internet use pushes up demand for paper comes from the high-tech industry itself, which sees printing as one of its most promising new markets. Several Internet companies have been set upto help small businesses print quality documents from a computer. Earlier this week Hewlett-Packard Co. announced a plan to develop new technologies that will enable people to print even more so they can get a hard copy of a business document, a medical record or just a one-line e-mail, even if they are nowhere near a computer. As the company sees it, the more use of the Internet the greater demand for printers.

Does all this mean environmental concerns(环境问题) have been forgotten? Some activists suggest people have been led to believe that a lot of dangers to the environment have gone away. "I guess people believe that the problem is taken care of, because of recycling(回收利用)," said Kelly Quirke, director of the Rainforest Action Network in San Francisco. Yet Quirke is hopeful that high-tech may also prove helpful. He says printers that print on both sides are growing in popularity. The action group has also found acceptable paper made from materials other than wood, such as agricultural waste.2003年全国卷)

The growing demand for paper in recent years is largely due to___________

Athe rapid development of small businesses  Bthe opening up of new markets

Cthe printing of high quality copies         Dthe increased use of the Internet

[分析]本文话题为办公用纸与环保,讲述了计算机与网络的发展并没有如人们先前所预料的那样帮助我们实现无纸化办公,相反地,随着打印技术的发展,用纸量日益增大.于是还得依靠科技,寻找双面打印与开拓农业废料提供造纸原料等出路了.文中涉及科技发展、生产需求与环保之间的关系,内涵十分深刻,平时“两耳不闻窗外事”的人是很难一下读明白的.本题考查对于文中提供的事实与线索进行逻辑推理的能力.

近年来纸张用量增加的原因何在?2段中做出解释:It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers,...when e-mail is introduced the printers start working overtime...The growing demand for paper看来正是a result of use of Internet-connected computers.本题答案为D.其余3个选项内容虽然也都在短文不同地方有所涉及,但均非题干所问纸张用量增长的直接原因,可逐一排除.

中,C项干扰性最大,第3段中所提及的Several Internet companies have been set up to help small businesses print quality documents from a computer 与选项C十分接近,因而对他们构成迷惑,这是因为考生没有能够认识到这一事实出现在本段中,只是为了说明how computer and Internet use pushes up demand for paper comes from the high-tech industry itself,然而the printing of high quality copies本身并非纸张需求增长的原因.

“阅读理解”解题过程中,需要在通篇理解大意的基础上找到与本题相关的线索,弄清各项事实之间的联系,辨别选项内容之间的细微差别,排除干扰,找准最佳答案.[答案]  D

  
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