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科普类文阅读技巧


来源:高中英语教学交流
发布时间:2012-05-09 07:53:00
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内容提要:理清说明顺序。主要有空间、时间、逻辑顺序。逻辑顺序又包含从原因到结果、从主要到次要、从整体到局部、从概括到具体、从总说到分说、从现象到本质、从特点到用途等。在段落中尽量找到表示说明顺序的显著的语言标志。

点一、 科普文章的特点

1、短小性。它篇幅小,然而就其知识容量、主题意义、现实作用又可以很大。它旁征博引,尺幅千里,能及时反映科学上新的事物、思想、方法和动态。

2、知识性。它普及科学知识,把科学的最新信息常给读者。它常常把握住现实生活中的某一事物或现象,用正确的理论,去进行科学的解释,纠正常识错误,从而使读者了解世界万物变化、运动的规律。

3、文学性。它要以优美文字、形象手法,来表达科学内容。它常采用比喻、拟人等文学手法和故事、对话、散文等形式及通俗、形象、幽默等语言,生动活泼、情趣盎然地介绍科学知识。

4 思想性。它往往以具体细小的事物,阐发一点耐人寻味的哲学道理,给人起启示,发人深省。阅读科普文章,要注意把握好两个层面的目标和要求:一是科学与人文 的层面。也可以说是科学的人文性。从科学中吸取智慧与力量,体会求实的科学态度和勇于探索创新的科学精神。另一个是知识和能力的层面。要根据科学小品这一 体裁的特点,学会筛选并整合文中有用信息,把握作者的写作思路,重点研习将抽象内容说明得具体生动的技巧。

考点二、 科普文章阅读的基本要求首先把它作为科技说明文来看待:

1、理清说明顺序。主要有空间、时间、逻辑顺序。逻辑顺序又包含从原因到结果、从主要到次要、从整体到局部、从概括到具体、从总说到分说、从现象到本质、从特点到用途等。在段落中尽量找到表示说明顺序的显著的语言标志。

(一)

2011•全国卷Ⅱ)

For those who study the development of intelligence (智力) in the animal worldself­awareness is an important measurement. An animal that is aware (意识) of itself has a high level of intelligence.

Awareness can be tested by studying whether the animal recognizes itself in the mirror, that isits own reflected image (反射出的影像). Many animals fail this exercise bitterly, paying very little attention to the reflected image. Only humans, and some intelligent animals like apes and dolphinshave been shown to recognize that the image in the mirror is of themselves.

Now another animal has joined the club. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers report that an Asian elephant has passed the mirror self­reflection test.

“We thought that elephants were the next important animal.” said Diana Reiss of the Wildlife Conservation Society, an author of the study with Joshua M. Plotnik and Fans B. M. de Waal of Emory University. With their large brains, Reiss said, elephants “seemed like cousins to apes and dolphins”

The researchers tested Happy, Maxine and Patty, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo. They put an 8­foot­square mirror on a wall of the animals' play area out of the sight of zoo visitors and recorded what happened with cameras, including one built in the mirror.

The elephants used their long noses to find what was behind it, and to examine parts of their bodies.

Of the three, Happy then passed the test, in which a clear mark was painted on one side of her face. She could tell the mark was there by looking in the mirror, and she used the mirror to touch the mark with her long nose.

Diana Reiss said, “We knew elephants were intelligent, but now we can talk about their intelligence in a better way.”

1What can mirror tests tell us about animals?

AWhether they have large brains.

BWhether they have self­awareness.

CWhether they enjoy outdoor exercises.

DWhether they enjoy playing with mirrors.

2Why does the author mention apes and dolphins in the text?

AThey are most familiar to readers.

BThey are big favorites with zoo visitors.

CThey are included in the study by Reiss.

DThey are already known to be intelligent.

3What made Happy different from Maxine and Patty?

AShe used her nose to search behind the mirror.

BShe recognized her own image in the mirror.

CShe painted a mark on her own face.

DShe found the hidden camera.

答案与解析

1.B 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句可知,通过研究动物是否在镜子中识别自己可以测试它们的自我意识。

2.D 推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句可知,作者提到猿和海豚是因为它们和人一样可以识别镜中自己的形象,是人们已知的有智力的动物;再根据第三段,一个亚洲象也通过了该测试,也加入到有智力的行列里,故选D项。

3.B 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段,三个大象中只有Happy通过了镜子测试,也就是说只有她能识别镜中自己的形象,因此这是她有别于其他大象的地方,故选B项。

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