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宾语从句要点及考点分析归纳


来源:人教网 发布时间:2015-06-14 11:39:00 查看次数:

内容提要:宾语从句的功能相当于名词词组,在句子中充当宾语。该从句是中学阶段的一个重要语法项目,在历年的高考中几乎都涉及到,并且每年的命题各有变化。本文欲就历届高考试题涉及到该从句考查的焦点在此作以归纳,以期有助于同学们复习、备考。

 福建省泉州市泉港区泉港二中 王正勋

宾语从句的功能相当于名词词组,在句子中充当宾语。该从句是中学阶段的一个重要语法项目,在历年的高考中几乎都涉及到,并且每年的命题各有变化。本文欲就历届高考试题涉及到该从句考查的焦点在此作以归纳,以期有助于同学们复习、备考。 

一、考查宾语从句的语序问题。语序应用陈述语序,且引导词一定要在从句的最前面。

【考例】

①As soon as he comes back, I'll tell him when ______ and see him.(05北京)

A. you will come   B. will you come C. you come   D. do you come

②When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal to let other drivers know       . (10上海)

A. he is entering which lane             B. which lane he is entering

C. is he entering which lane             D. which lane is he entering

【简析】①A。when引导宾语从句时,用陈述语序,且主句谓语动词是一般将来时,所以从句该用什么时态就用什么时态,由语境可知,应是将来时。同时注意when引导时间状语时常用一般现在时代替一般将来时。②B。which引导的句子做know的宾语,句子用陈述语序,引导词位于从句句首。 

二、考查宾语从句的连接词问题。

(1)引导宾语从句的有从属连词that, whether 和if;连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which, whatever, whichever, whoever等;连接副词when, where, how, why等。选用何种连接词主要根据①所选词在从句中所作成分;②从句意判断句中缺少的意项。

【考例】

①She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do_____it takes to save her life.(09湖南)

A. whichever        B. however    C. whatever  D. whoever

②As a new diplomat, he often thinks of_____he can react more appropriately on such occasions. (09上海)

A. what     B. which      C. that      D. how

③ I want to be liked and loved for           I am inside. (10湖北)

A. who          B. where      C. what          D. how

④ We haven’t discussed yet ______ we are going to place our new furniture. (10全国Ⅰ)

A. that      B. which     C. what      D. where

【简析】①C。whichever“无论哪一个”; however“无论如何”; whoever“无论谁”; whatever“无论什么”。由分析可知,该引导词引导的是宾语从句,且从句中take缺少宾语,由句意“她对我们来说是非常宝贵,我们已经准备好做一切来拯救她的生命。”可知,应用whatever。②D。句意为“作为一种新的外交官,他经常考虑他怎么能在那样的场合反应更恰当。”很显然,该宾语从句缺少一个表示“方式”的词,故用how。③C。句意为“我想别人喜欢我是因为我的内在。”也就是我inside的品质。只有what可以指代是什么。很多同学误选A,错误的用中文语言习惯去做英文题。④D。由句意为“我们还没有讨论把我们的新家具放在哪里。”可知,动词discuss后的宾语从句缺少地点状语,故用where。

(2)宾语从句中注意下列几组相似意思的区别。

考查引导词whether与if的区别。两者都表示“是否”,都可引导宾语从句;但如果宾语从句是否定句一般用if;下列情况用whether①作介词宾语;②后紧跟or not; ③作discuss等词的宾语。

【考例】

①At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see _____ it got any better.(09北京)

A. when    B. h ow    C. why     D. if

②We haven't settled the question of ______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. (06江苏)

A. if      B. where   C. whether     D. that

【简析】①D。句意为“最初他不喜欢这件新工作,但是他决定给自己几个月的时间来看一下这件工作是否会变得更好。”所以用if表“是否”,引导宾语从句。②C。句意为“我们还没有解决他是否有必要出国留学这个问题。”此处是宾语从句,表“是否”,含有不确定,且作介词的宾语,故用whether。

考查引导词wh-与wh-ever的区别。“wh-ever”引导宾语从句时,其含有“无论……”之意,其引导宾语从句无疑问意义,相当于名词或代词加一个定语从句,而wh-多有疑问之意。

【考例】

① Could I speak to_____ is in charge of International Sales please? (09海南)

A. who   B. what     C. whoever    D. whatever

②– Could you do me a favour?

– It depends on ______ it is. (06北京)

A. which      B. whichever  C. what      D. whatever

【简析】①C 。whoever引导的宾语从句作了 to 的宾语,同时whoever作is in charge of International Sales please的主语。whoever意为“任何人或无论谁”,相当于any person who或the person who。②C。what引导宾语从句,并在从句中充当表语,意为“什么”,含有具体之事的意思。句意为“那取决于是什么”。

考查引导词no matter+疑问词与疑问词+ever的区别。“no matter+疑问词”只能引导状语从句;而“疑问词+ever”既可引导状语从句,也可引导宾语从句。

【考例】

①The book can be of help to _____ wants to do the job.(09陕西)

A. who    B. whomever    C. no matter who    D. whoever

②Sarah hopes to become a friend of ______shares her interests. (95上海)

A. anyone     B. whomever     C. whoever       D. no matter who

【简析】①D。此处从句作介词to的宾语。引导词做从句的主语,指人,意思是:无论是谁,no matter+疑问词不能引导宾语从句。②C。此处从句作介词of的宾语。no matter+疑问词不能引导宾语从句,又因连接词在从句作主语,所以用whoever,其相当于anyone who。
 IV.考查what与how引导的感叹句充当宾语的区别。此时意为“多么”,what修饰“形容词+名词或a(an)+形容词+名词”,而how修饰“形容词或副词、many,little(少),much, few等+名词或形容词+a(an)+名词(单数)”

【考例】

①I was surprised by her words , which made me recognize ____silly mistakes I had made.(05湖南)

A. what       B. that      C. how      D. which.

②Parents are taught to understand ______ important education is to their children’s future.(04广东)

A. that       B. how   C. such   D. so

【简析】①A。句意为“我对她的话很吃惊,它迫使我承认我犯了多么愚蠢的错误。”宾语从句表感叹,中心词为名词,所以用what。②B。句意为“使父母亲明白教育对他们子女的未来来说是多么地重要。”宾语从句表感叹,中心词为形容词,所以用how

考查引导词what与that的区别。what作连接代词并表示“所……的”之意,相当于the+名词+that”或“all that”,可指代不确定的事物等,在句中作主语、宾语或表语等。that在从句中只起连接作用,不充当任何成分,翻译中,不译。

[典型考题]

①(10山东)Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season.

A. why     B. what    C. how    D. which

②(10北京)Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was __ it was rather closely modeled on his own life.

A. what         B. that       C. why          D. whether

【解析】①:B。句意应为:在大甩卖开始前,我把孩子们在下个季节里要用到的东西列了一个清单。分析句式结构可知,空格处在句中引导宾语从句且在从句中充当need的宾语。which 引导名词性从句时多表示疑问且要有一个明确的范围。②B。句意应为:狄更斯喜欢他自己的小说大卫科波菲尔的部分原因是小说创作非常贴近他本人的真实生活。表语从句不缺成分,因此用that来引导。 

三、考查宾语从句的时态问题。

①当主句中的谓语动词是现在或将来时态时,从句的谓语不受主句谓语时态的影响,可根据句子的实际情况使用不同的时态。②当主句中的谓语动词是过去时,从句的时态也是表示过去的时态。既一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时或过去完成时。③当从句表示客观事实或真理时,其时态不受主句谓语时态的影响,而用一般现在时。

【考例】

①I was out of town at the time, so I don’t know exactly how it _______. (09山东)Ks5u

A. was happening     B. happened    C. happens    D. has happened

②She stared at the painting, wondering where she ______it.(09重庆)

A. saw     B. has seen     C. sees      D. had seen

【简析】①B。本题考查具体语境中的时态,后一句隐藏的时间状语是at the time;又因为主句中的谓语动词是现在时。故从句用一般过去时。②D。本题也是考查具体语境中的时态,因wondering是stared的伴随状语,故表示过去的动作,又因see发生在wondering之前,即过去的过去,因此用过去完成时。③D。

 

四、考查宾语从句的虚拟语气问题。

(1)在表示坚持要求(insist),命令(order,demand),建议(suggest,,advise,propose),要求(ask,requre,demand,request)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”。(2)用it作形式宾语,宾补是:necessary,important,strange,desirable,advisable,requested,vital,urgent,possible等时,后置的宾语从句的谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”。(3) wish 引导的宾语从句表虚拟语气时,如果从句表示动作发生在过去,用过去完成时;指现在状态,则用过去时(be动词只用were形式);指将来,用过去将来时。(4)would rather引导的宾语从句表虚拟语气时, 如果从句表示动作发生在过去,用过去完成时;指将来或现在动作,则用过去时(be动词只用were形式)

【考例】

①____ be sent to work there? (02上海)

A. Who do you suggest        B. Who do you suggest that should

C. Do you suggest who should D. Do you suggest whom should

②George is going to talk about the geography of his country, but I’d rather he_______ more on its culture. (10江苏)

A. focus       B. focused         C. would focus     D. had focused

③–Don't you think it necessary that he _______ to Miami but to New York?

–I agree, but the problem is ________ he has refused to. (05江苏)

A. will not be sent; that          B. not be sent; that

C. should not be sent; what          D. should not send; what

【简析】①A。特殊疑问句的疑问词应置于句首,又suggest(建议)后的宾语从句应用虚拟语气(should+动词原形),且should可省略。②A。would rather后应用虚拟语气,表示与现在时间相反,用动词的过去式。③B。it作形式宾语,that引导的从句作真正的宾语,necessary作宾语补足语时,从句的谓语动词要用“(should)+动词原形”,又因此从句主语与动词send是被动关系,故用(should) not be sent;第二空的引导词引导的是表语从句,从句有用省略结构,其完整结构是“he has refused to be sent to New York”,由完整结构可知,该从句不缺成分,故用that。 

五、考查名词性从句it作形式宾语问题。

①宾语从句+宾语补足语的结构为了保持句子平衡,常用it作形式宾语,把真正的宾语从句置于句末,常见的it作形式宾语的谓语动词有believe,find,make,guess,suppose等。②某些及物动词或短语不能直接加宾语从句,此时用it作形式宾语,然后再接宾语从句,此种用法常见于like,dislike,hate,appreciate等。

【考例】

①He didn’t make _____ clear when and where the meeting would be held. (07天津)

A. this     B. that C. it       D. these

②I’d appreciate ____ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. (06山东)

A. that   B. it   C. this   D. you

【简析】①C。此题考查的是谓语动词后加宾语的复合结构,clear是宾补,when and where the meeting would be held.是真正的宾语,并置于宾补之后,故用it作形式宾语。②B。if you would like to teach me how to use the computer是宾语从句,作appreciate的宾语,该种情况常用it作形式宾语。

 

六、考查宾语从句的否定转移和该情况下的反意疑问句问题。

主句谓语动词是think,believe,suppose,imagine,consider,expect,guess ,be sure等,且主句的主语是第一人称并为一般现在时,从句的否定一般要转移到主句上来,其反意疑问句一般与宾语从句的主语保持一致。

【考例】

①I don't suppose anyone will volunteer _____?(01上海)

A. do I   B. don't I   C. will they D. won't they

②I' m sure you' d rather she went to school by bus, _____? (06福建)

A. hadn't you     B. wouldn't you      C. aren't I        D. didn't she

【简析】①C。由主句谓语动词是suppose,主句主语是第一人称并为一般现在时可知,反意疑问句应对宾语从句反问,再者don't实际上是对宾语从句的否定,故反问应用肯定,即will they。②B。反意疑问句应对I' m sure后的宾语从句的反问,又you' d等于you would,故用wouldn't you。 

七、考查that引导宾语从句时的是否省略问题。

一般来讲,宾语从句中的that可以省略,但下列情况一般不省略:①当一个句子有两个或多个并列的宾语从句时,引导第二个和以后几个从句的that不可省;②由it作形式宾语;③当宾语从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时;④当宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词或从句时;⑤当主句的谓语动词与宾语从句之间有插入语时;⑥当某些介词后接that引导的宾语从句时,常见的有in that(由于),except that(除了)等。

【考例】

①Having checked the doors were closed , and ______ all the lights were off, the boy opened the door to his bedroom.(07湖南)

A. why      B. that      C. when      D. where

②Animals suffered at the hands of Man ___ they were destroyed by people to make way for agricultural had to provide food for more people.(08江西)

A. in which      B. for which     C. so that     D. in that

③I know nothing about the young lady_____she is from Beijing.(00上海)

A.except    B.except for C.except that    D.besides

【简析】①B。由and可知,the doors were closed和all the lights were off是并列作check的宾语,且从句意思完整。当一个句子有两个或多个并列的宾语从句时,引导第二个和以后几个从句的that不可省,故用that。②D。该句大意是“动物遭受人类的控制,因为人类为了得到更多的农产品供更多的人消费,破坏动物的生存环境以得到更多的土地。”in that 相当于because。③C。空后面是不缺成分的从句,且与nothing连用,故用except that 该句意为“关于这位年轻的女士,我只知道她来自上海。” 

八、考查宾语从句存在插入语时的问题。

此时多考查的是连接词的选用、位置和从句的谓语动词的形式及从句语序。一般来说,连接词应置于插入语之前;特殊疑问句形式是插入语用部分倒装,从句用陈述语序;做选择题时,把插入语去掉进行判断。

【考例】

①Mum is coming. What present ______ for your birthday?  (05福建)

A.you expect she has got     B.you expect has she got

C.do you expect she has got       D.do you expect has she got

②The companies are working together to create _____ they hope will be the best means of transport in the 21st century. (08北京)

A. which           B. that            C. what          D. who

【简析】①C。you expect是插入语,在特殊疑问句插入语部分倒装,宾语从句用陈述语序。②C。create后是宾语从句,其中they hope是插入语,把该插入语去掉后,可以看出该从句缺少主语,根据题意应用what。

 
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