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中学英语中常见的倒装结构


来源:高中英语教学交流 发布时间:2013-04-20 10:51:00 查看次数:

内容提要:英语句子的自然语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后。把谓语动词放在主语之前,就叫做倒装结构。

  英语句子的自然语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后。把谓语动词放在主语之前,就叫做倒装结构。全部谓语放在主语之前,叫全部倒装;只把部分谓语动词即助动词或情态动词放在主语之前,叫部分倒装。倒装结构常用于下列结构。

一、 全部倒装

1. 直接引语的全部或部分放在句首且主语是名词。

“ He is a clever.” said the teacher.

“ Go, Dick, go!” cried Tom, “ Go home and get help!”

2. 用于there be/ live/stand/lie/appear/seem/remain等表存在“有”的句型中。
There once lived a hunter in the house.

There seems to be many listeners.

There used to be a big tree in front of our classroom.

3. 用于“here/there/now/then/out/in/up/down/away等副词+不及物动词+主语”的句型中,以表强调。

Now comes your turn.

Then came the war ages.然后是战争年代。

Here are some advertisements about English language training.

Out rushed the boy.

注意:此情况只限于不及物动词或be 动词。若主语为代词时不倒装,只把该副词提前,不用进行时态。

Here she comes.

Out he rushed.

4. 地点状语置于句首(尤为介词短语并且主语为名词,谓语为不及物动词)

North of the city lies a big factory.

From the valley came a frightening sound.

5.以such开头的句子中

Such will be our family in the future.

Such are the facts. / Such is the fact.

6. 表语位于句首时,构成“表语形容词/过去分词/介词短语+连系动词+主语”这一倒装结构。

Present at the meeting are some famous scientists.

Gone are the days when they could do what they like to the Chinese people.

Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles and toys.

7. 用于so, nor, neither开头的句子,表示上文所表示的含义也适用于另一人或物。谓语动词应于前句谓语时态保持一致。

He has been to Beijing. So have I.

He went abroad last year. So did I.

He is a student. So am I.

If you don't go to the cinema, nor will I.

注意:若后面的句子只是重复前面的句子意思,前后主语是同一人或物,尽管以so开头,语序不倒装。

----- John won the first prize in the contest.

----- So he did.  /So did Jack.

----- David has made great progress in English recently.

----- So he has. And so have you.

若是下种情况,须用句型so it is with… /It's the same with…

----- I seldom go to the cinema, but I enjoy films on TV.(既有肯定又有否定)

----- So it is with Tom. / It's the same with Tom.

----- I love playing football, and I'm fond of music, too. (谓语动词类型不同)

----- So it is with Tom. / It's the same with Tom.

8. 为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调表语或状语,或使上下文紧密衔接时。

There arrived at a farm house, in front of which sat a small boy.

In the east of Asia lies China, with Beijing as its capital.

9. 表祝愿。

Long live Chairman Mao.

May you succeed! / May he succeed! 祝你(他)成功。

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二、 部分倒装

1.用于疑问句:Do you speak English? / Have you ever been to Beijing?

2.直接引语的一部分或全部放在句首时,主语是名词,倒装;是代词,不倒装。“Let's go”. said the man. / He said.

3.用于never, hardly, scarcely, nor, seldom, little, barely, nowhere, at no time(决不), by no means(决不), not for a moment(从未,一刻也没有,) not in the least(一点也不), in no way(决不), not (not once, not a single mistake)等否定副词或短语开头的句子中。

I have never read such a book.

à Never have I read such a book.

He can hardly speak.

à Hardly can he speak.

By no means will we give up.

Nowhere have I found my pen.

I don't want to go, nor will I.

4.用于no sooner…than… , hardly/rarely/scarcely…when…句型中,表示“刚…就…”.

no sooner, hardly, rarely, scarcely置于句首,所在主句用过去完成时,从句一般为过去时。

Hardly had I reached the bus stop when the bus started.

No sooner had he heard the news than he rushed out into the street.

5. not until置于句首,主句多用倒装。(not until本身引导的句子不倒装)

I didn't know what had happened until he told me.

à Not until he told me did I know what had happened.

Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework.

附:强调句型 It was not until the teacher came that he finished his homework.

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