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如何迅速扩大英语词汇量?


来源:网络转载 发布时间:2017-09-29 09:13:32 查看次数:

内容提要:若想迅速扩大词汇量,必须懂构词法知识。构词法主要有合成法、转化法、派生法和缩略法四种。

若想迅速扩大词汇量,必须懂构词法知识。构词法主要有合成法、转化法、派生法和缩略法四种。

合成法

合成法就是指由两个或两个以上的单词合成的词。这种构词方式主要有两种:复合法、结合法。合成法主要是构成合成名词和合成形容词。blackboard和darkroom都是形容词和名词形成的结构,writing desk是动名词和名词形式的结构。

合成名词

名词+名词:air conditioner, alarm clock, bank account, bus stop, book case, credit card, generation gap, health center, sign language, telephone number, blood pressure, heart attack,pocket money, post office, table tennis

形容词+名词:central park, higher education, musical instrument, natural resources, open air, civil rights, fast food, high school, human rights, natural history, remote control, yellow pages

动词的-ing形式+名词:dining room, driving license, sleeping bag, swimming pool, washing machine, window-shopping, sightseeing, zebra crossing

其他:by-product, looker-on, passer-by, pickpocket, breakthrough, go-between, forget-me-not, editor-in-chief, get-together

合成形容词

包含-ed 的:absent-minded, broken-hearted, good-tempered, home-made, cold-blooded, grey-haired, high-heeled, so-called, short-sighted, middle-aged

包含-ing的:never-ending, record-breaking, good-looking, hard-working, mouth-watering

形容词和名词的组合:front-page, one-way, second-hand, first-class, top-secret, brand-new,duty-free, world-famous

其他:drive-in, see-through, outdoor, off-campus, all-out, all-round, face-to-face, ten-minute, well-off, two-year-old

合成副词

形容词+名词:sometimes, meanwhile,hotfoot(匆忙地)

副词+名词:oftentimes, indoors, outdoors, overhead

介词+名词:alongside, beforehand

名词+形容词:skyhigh, stonestill,

副词+介词:nearby, upalong,

副词+副词:however

合成动词

名词+动词:overhear, underline,sleep-walk,moonwalk

形容词+动词:white-wash, safeguard

副词+动词:overwhelm

其它合成词

合成代词:everybody, everyone, everything, anyone, anybody, anything

合成介词:outside, inside, throughout

转化法

把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法叫做转化法,有的名词可以作动词,有的形容词可以作副词或动词。由于词类转化的结果,英语中就形成了大量外形相同但词类不同的词,即同形异类词。转化主要有如下几种类型。

动词转化为名词 (有时意思没有太大变化)

He tried a hard try.

He laughed a hearty laugh.

He gave the girl a kiss.

He fought a hard fight.

Can I have a read of your paper?

She had a cry about the sad news.

She closed her eyes and wished a wish.

He smiled a friendly smile and bowed a little bow.

She slept a peaceful/ sound sleep and dreamed a happy dream.

名词转化为动词

有些词,本属名词,但在现在英语中,却越来越多地用做动词,这就是名词的动词化。名词动词化后,常常表示具有该名词活动特点、性质特征的动作,既精炼又生动。这类名词有如下几类:

1. 人体部位词head, face, hand, eye, shoulder, elbow, stomach, thumb, leg, tiptoe, nose, back, ear, mouth, foot等

He will head a firm.

He fingered his eyes.

The sick man couldn’t even stomach liquids.

The spokesman mouthed his words carefully.

2.地点处所词room, house, corner, ground, dam, floor, bridge等

It houses more books than any other university library.

They cornered the thief and caught him.

3.时间季节词summer, winter, weekend, breakfast, lunch等

He summered in a temple in the mountain.

The shepherd wintered his sheep in the valley.

She usually breakfasts at seven a.m.

4.用品物件词pencil, pen, pocket, veil, glass, machine, gun, sandwich等

The paint coated the wall.

The government tabled a motion.

The hall can seat five hundred people.

I have booked a ticket for the concert.

The old man hammered a nail into the wall.

5.身份职务词master, partner, dwarf, pioneer, volunteer, nurse, pilot, spy, mother, father, doctor, host, man, soldier, officer等

Don’t brother me.

Dick used to partner Mary.

Einstein fathered relativity.

She nursed the patient back to health.

6.通讯交通词bus, truck, wheel, radio, train等

Let’s wheel the rubbish to the dump.

I urgently radioed the information back to headquarters.

7. 动物名称词snake, dog, worm, duck等等、

Jack isn’t ill. He’s just foxing.

The old man saw some children horsing about in the snow.

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