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葛文山:如何修补作文句子碎片和连写句


来源:葛文山原点英语 发布时间:2016-11-26 19:14:00 查看次数:

内容提要:我认真研读了美国的Laurie G. Kriszner, Stephen R. Mandell, John Langan, Carol C. Kanar, Michael A. Putlack, Will LInk, Stephen Poirier, 丁往道等国内外大家关于作文教学的著作。下面就是其中的一篇学习心得,关于如何修补作文句子碎片和连写句,与各位同仁交流,也给给位英语学习者参考。

 美国权威文献:如何修补作文句子碎片和连写句(苏派名师葛文山编译,边讲边练,附有巩固习题)
葛文山编译 葛文山原点英语  

 在过去的两三年中,我认真研读了美国的Laurie G. Kriszner, Stephen R. Mandell, John Langan, Carol C. Kanar, Michael A. Putlack, Will LInk, Stephen Poirier, 丁往道等国内外大家关于作文教学的著作。下面就是其中的一篇学习心得,关于如何修补作文句子碎片和连写句,与各位同仁交流,也给给位英语学习者参考。

除了祈使句(无主语)、省略句、报纸标题等这些特例之外,句子都必须有主语和谓语动词,必须表达一个完整的思想。否则就是单词的堆砌,在语法上是讲不通的,而且语意也不完整,这样的句子即为句子碎片(SentenceFragments)。例如,But she lookedlike she had a boyfriend. Did she? That secure look. So at ease. Not just aboyfriend, but a good man, too. A large man maybe. A boyfriend who lifts heavythings for a living. Or could, if he wanted to.

 一、因增加细节引起的句子碎片

在英语写作中,我们常使用that is, namely,for instance, for example, also, except, such as, including, especially,对前面的句子做一些补充说明。但是,这些补充说明通常不是一个独立的句子。如果使用不当,就容易造成句子碎片。

1.     Somepopular novelists are highly respected in later generations. For example,Charles Dickens and Mark Twain.

2.     Fairytales are full of girls in distress. Such as Cinderella and Rapunzel.

修改这类句子碎片的方法有三个:改变标点符号和大小写,让句子碎片与前边具有完整意义的句子连接起来;为句子碎片增加主语和谓语动词;必要时改变字词。我们可以把上面两个病句修改为:

1.  Somepopular novelists are highly respected in later generations, for example, Charles Dickens and Mark Twain.

2.  Fairytales are full of girls in distress,such as Cinderella and Rapunzel.

巩固练习

句子

碎片

I am the only woman I know  who plays all kinds of card games for money. For example, poker, bridge and  blackjack.

修改1

I am the only woman I know  who plays all kinds of card games for money, __________________ ⑴ poker, bridge and blackjack.

修改2

I am the only woman I know  who plays all kinds of card games for money. __________________⑵ play poker, bridge and blackjack.

⑴, for example,(注意标点符号);. Forexample, I(注意标点符号)


 二、因缺少主语而引起的句子碎片

一般来说,一个句子最起码要具有主语和谓语。但是,我在批改学生作文常发现,一些学生在写了多个句式结构相同的句子之后,容易出现遗漏主语的现象。

1. One example of my father's generosity is that he visits sick friends in thehospital. And takes along get-well cards with a few dollars folded in them.

2. Sarahlooked with admiration at the attractive model. And wondered how the modellooked upon waking up in the morning.

改正这类句子碎片的方法有两个:把句子碎片与前句相连;增加主语(该主语常以代词出现,指代前句中的名词主语)。我们可以把上面两个病句修改为:

1. Oneexample of my father's generosity is that he visits sick friends in thehospital and takes alongget-well cards with a few dollars folded in them.

2.  Sarahlooked with admiration at the attractive model. She wondered how the model looked upon waking up in themorning.

另外,学生在使用also, finally, inaddition, now等连接词时,也容易出现遗漏主语或者谓语的现象。

句子碎片

修改

Also a step in the right  direction.

It was also a step in the right direction.

Finally, a new home for  the family.

Finally, he found a new home for the  family.

In addition, three new  keyboards for the computer lab.

In addition, we need three new keyboards for  the computer lab.

Now, the first step.

Now, I will explain the first step.

巩固练习

句子

碎片

While sitting in class,  she realized she had lost a ring. But happily found it in the women's room  after class. The ring wasn't worth much money but had an enormous personal  value to her.

修改

While sitting in class,  she realized she had lost a ring. But _______⑶ happily found  it in the women's room after class. The ring wasn't worth much money but had  an enormous personal value to her.

 

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